Making the most compelling case
given your evidence and audience

Students are often tempted to start producing a product before they fully understand the case they are making. Once the case has been understood, they need to think carefully about the target audience and the most appropriate and effective way to present their case. This is also the point at which all sources used should be carefully referenced in an age-appropriate manner.
Clarity about what is required from Express is critical, because both product and process come under close scrutiny in the Reflect stage.
Teaching students to share their new understandings effectively with their peers and other audiences incorporates the social and emotional competencies of self-confidence, agency, self-management, organization, and assessing the needs and interests of different audiences. The Express stage is when students develop their own voice and the motivation to share their voice with others.

Construct ← Previous | Express | Next → Reflect


  • Enabling students to be creative in their expression products and to decide the most appropriate formats based on their own expertise and the needs of the audience
  • Providing students with a marking rubric so that they can pre-assess their own work and make improvements before handing it in. This should include some credit for using relevant, age-appropriate and authoritative resources and referencing appropriately.
  • Giving students opportunities to pre-assess each other’s work and give constructive criticism, allowing time for improvement before work is handed in.

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Epistemology and Learning Memos